Although it is very easy to find and download material (including drawings, prints, illustrations, charts, tables, photographs and text)  from the Internet, this does not mean that it can automatically be published as part of an article in the Nexus Network Journal. Authors are responsible for obtaining (and, where required, paying for) permissions to reproduce images to be included in their papers. We cannot include material where these rights have not been obtained. We encourage authors use original, unpublished figures, photographs, tables, and other content where possible. One alternative to use of images for which permission cannot be obtained is to provide a link to the content on the Internet.


Before acceptance:

Authors do not have to obtain permission to use images before their papers are accepted for publication, but proper permission does have to be obtained before the paper can be published.

Even before acceptance, all images must be accompanied by captions that indicate the source for the figures to be used. Examples of such caption are:

Fig. 1. Main façade, Palazzo Reale, Torino. Photo: author.

Fig. 1. U-shaped artillery platform by Pedro Moreau. Campo de Gibraltar (1750) Image: Archivo General de Simancas: MPD,56,038.

When and how to obtain permission:

Permission to reproduce is required when:

  • The author of the article is not the creator of the material to be reproduced (that is, when you are using a drawing, photo, etc. that you did not create yourself);
  • The image is not in the public domain;

Images are in the public domain when:

  • the copyright term has expired (e.g., any work published prior to 1923)
  • the copyright owners have expressly released the materials into the public domain

If you are not the creator of your own images, and the images desired are not public domain, you must request permission to reproduce the image from the copyright owner and/or rights holder. This may mean contacting the publisher of the original work if you have found the image in a book or journal, or it may mean contacting the museum, archive, photographer, artist, etc. You must also contact the creators of Internet pages (including online journals, private webpages, blogs, etc.) before using material you have found there. This includes, for instance, Google Earth images (see

In addition to possible fees for reproduction, the person or entity holding the rights to the image(s) may require that the credit line be formulated in a specific way.

To help authors obtain permission to reproduce, we have assembled a form letter. This can be downloaded by clicking here.